When any electrical conductor is subjected to a thermal gradient by heating one end while maintaining the other end at a low temperature it will generate a voltage between the hot and cold ends. This is known as the Thomson effect and is principle used for the direct conversion of heat energy into electrical energy.
Heating a semiconductor causes more conduction because more electrons can go upward and be donated or accepted. However there is an opposite effect which is less powerful. Heat causes the atoms to move around randomly so they are no longer in their
Semiconductor any of a class of crystalline solids intermediate in electrical conductivity between a conductor and an insulator.Semiconductors are employed in the manufacture of various kinds of electronic devices including diodes transistors and integrated circuits.Such devices have found wide application because of their compactness reliability power efficiency and low cost.
A semiconductor chip is an electric circuit with many components such as transistors and wiring formed on a semiconductor wafer.An electronic device comprising numerous these components is called integrated circuit (IC). The layout of the components is patterned on a photomask (reticle) by computer and projected onto a semiconductor wafer in the manufacturing processes described below.